AYURVED TREATMENT

Ayurved is an ancient Indian therapy related with herbal treatment. "Ayurved" term is derived from its ancient Sanskrit roots- 'Ayus' which stands for life and 'Veda' which symbolizes knowledge. Ayurved is highly effective in common and complicated ailments, assures long term relief and has no side effects. Medical tourism help provides its gentle healing touch to millions around the world with Ayurved therapy. Ayurved is a 5000 year old science of health care using herbs, physical massages and various other forms of therapy for many illnesses.

Legal and Ethical Procedure India

Legal issues: By traveling outside their home country for medical care, medical tourists may encounter unfamiliar ethical and legal issues. The limited nature of legal action in non-US countries is one reason for the lower cost of care overseas. While some countries currently presenting themselves as attractive medical tourism destinations provide some form of legal remedies for medical malpractice, these legal avenues may be unappealing to the medical tourist. Should problems arise, patients might not be covered by adequate personal insurance or might be unable to seek compensation via malpractice lawsuits. Hospitals and/or doctors in some countries may be unable to pay the financial damages awarded by a court to a patient who has sued them, owing to the hospital and/or the doctor not possessing appropriate insurance cover and/or medical indemnity. However new insurance products are available that protect the patient should an alleged medical malpractice occur overseas.

Receiving medical care abroad may subject medical tourists to unfamiliar legal issues.[24] The limited nature of litigation in various countries is one reason for the lower cost of care overseas. While some countries currently presenting themselves as attractive medical tourism destinations provide some form of legal remedies for medical malpractice, these legal avenues may be unappealing to the medical tourist. Should problems arise, patients might not be covered by adequate personal insurance or might be unable to seek compensation via malpractice lawsuits. Hospitals and/or doctors in some countries may be unable to pay the financial damages awarded by a court to a patient who has sued them, owing to the hospital and/or the doctor not possessing appropriate insurance cover and/or medical indemnity.

While there is a legal framework with more than 25 health laws in Malaysia, questions have been raised about its robustness. For example, the Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act (PHFSA) and its Regulations, which regulate all private hospitals and clinics, prescribe statutory responsibilities for the licensee and person in charge of the facility in respect of all aspects of medical practice.

Although a local residential requirement is implied for both the licensee and person in charge, there is at least one hospital known to have a Malaysian licensee who is ordinarily resident abroad. This raises issues about the accountability of the licensee or person in charge who is a foreigner or a Malaysian who is ordinarily a resident abroad. If something goes amiss, what can the regulators do?

It is accepted that all procedures carry with it risks. If the risks and complications materialise, the insurance coverage of the foreign patient may not be adequate to meet the costs of additional treatment.

The foreign patient may also decide to take legal action for alleged negligence.

The local legal remedies may not appeal to foreign patients for various reasons, eg unfamiliarity and perceived inadequacy of the local doctors’ indemnity and hospitals’ insurance coverage, the local legal process and the magnitude of compensation awards and settlements. Should the foreign patient take legal action in his or her home country, there are issues about jurisdiction and enforcement of awards made. This may even result in the doctors and hospital managers involved encountering problems should they visit the home country of the foreign patient

There can be major ethical issues around medical tourism.For example, the illegal purchase of organs and tissues for transplantation has been alleged in countries such as India and China prior to 2007.

Medical tourism may raise broader ethical issues for the countries in which it is promoted. For example in India, some argue that a "policy of 'medical tourism for the classes and health missions for the masses' will lead to a deepening of the inequities" already embedded in the health care system. In Thailand, in 2008 it was stated that, "Doctors in Thailand have become so busy with foreigners that Thai patients are having trouble getting care". Medical tourism centred on new technologies, such as stem cell treatments, is often criticized on grounds of fraud, blatant lack of scientific rationale and patient safety. However, when pioneering advanced technologies, such as providing 'unproven' therapies to patients outside of regular clinical trials, it is often challenging to differentiate between acceptable medical innovation and unacceptable patient exploitation

Ethical issues: There can be major ethical issues around medical tourism. Medical tourism may raise broader ethical issues for the countries in which it is promoted. Some argue that a "policy of 'medical tourism for the classes and health missions for the masses' will lead to a deepening of the inequities" already embedded in the health care system.

There have been reports of damaging effects on the health systems of countries providing medical tourism. The focus on tertiary care for foreigners, which is inevitably driven by advanced technologies, impact on the provision of healthcare in developing countries like India and Thailand, with suggestions that medical tourism have disadvantaged the local population.

In a World Health Organization (WHO) Bulletin (Vol 85 No 3 2007: 161 – 244) article on medical tourism in India, Dr Manuel Dayrit, director of WHO’s Human Resources for Health, stated: “Although there are no ready figures that can be cited from studies, initial observations suggest that medical tourism dampens external migration but worsens internal migration. It remains to be seen how significant these effects are going to be. But in either case, it does not augur well for the healthcare of patients who depend largely on the public sector for their services as the end result does not contribute to the retention of well-qualified professionals in public sector services.”

In addressing the claim by medical tourism proponents, who argue that medical tourism revenues will find their way into public coffers to help retain staff in the public sector, Dayrit stated “Unless national laws or regulations are set up so that these revenues are taxed explicitly and channelled to the public sector to augment salaries, the likelihood of this happening is very slim.”

Thelma Narayan wrote in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics (April – June 2005), “The policy of ‘medical tourism for the classes and health missions for the masses’ will only lead to a deepening of the inequities already embedded in our healthcare system.”

It could be argued by medical tourism proponents that the local situation is different from that in India and Thailand. However, only the cavalier would attempt to provide an iota of assurance that the Malaysian public will be spared the ill effects of medical tourism.

A constant complaint of medical tourism proponents is about the perceived stringent guidelines of the Malaysian Medical Council (MMC). The MMC states “…self-advertisement is not only incompatible with the principles which should govern relations between members of a profession but could be a source of danger to the public. A practitioner successful at achieving publicity may not be the most appropriate doctor for a patient to consult. In extreme cases advertising may raise illusory hopes of a cure.”

The MMC permits provision of the doctor’s name, professional qualifications, designation, home, practice as well as e-mail address, telephone and facsimile numbers. However, it does not permit laudatory statements, deprecation of the skills, knowledge or qualifications of others and the canvassing for patients or its abetment.

The MMC’s view is consistent with that of most medical regulatory bodies worldwide. For example, the General Medical Council of the UK, in its guidance on Good Medical Practice states: “If you publish information about your medical services, you must make sure the information is factual and verifiable. You must not make unjustifiable claims about the quality or outcomes of your services in any information you provide to patients. It must not offer guarantees of cures, nor exploit patients’ vulnerability or lack of medical knowledge. You must not put pressure on people to use a service, for example by arousing ill-founded fears for their future health.”

The International Medical Travel Journal’s (IMTJ) advice is: “Once you’ve chosen your destination, your next task is to choose a clinic or hospital, which can be daunting task in an increasingly competitive market place. Your instincts may tell you to go with the clinic with the most impressive website, and while a good website can be a sign of a well-run and professional organisation, make sure you also find out the answers to these crucial questions:

      - How many procedures of this type have done over the past year?

      - How many required unplanned follow-up treatment?

      - To what internationally agreed standards does the hospital or clinic subscribe, and what independent inspection reports are available?

      - What happens if something goes wrong?

      - How will you ascertain if I’m fit enough to fly (where applicable)?

      - If I need routine post-operative care back in my home country, where will this take place and who will arrange and pay for it?

Is there anyone at the clinic who speaks my language?” (www.imtjonline.com/consumer-guide/step-4-find-the-right-clinic Accessed 2 May 2009)

Although an internet search for “medical tourism” yielded 4.6 million results worldwide, including 14,900 from Malaysia, the overwhelming majority are attractive websites of tourism agencies, industry guides or news articles. There is, however, no comprehensive data about the outcomes and complications of various treatments that make comparisons possible.

Such information is vital to decision making in accordance with the IMTJ advice. By comparison, the websites of many public sector hospitals abroad increasingly provide information about the outcomes and complications of specific treatments, eg cardiac surgery.

There are ethical issues galore in organ transplantation and assisted reproduction, some of which involve not only ethics but also religion, morals and culture.

The flourishing market in body parts (especially kidneys) has existed for several years with vulnerable individuals being tricked or coerced into donating their body parts and recipients travelling to countries where donated organs may be purchased legally or illegally.

Guido Pennings, who wrote Ethics Without Boundaries: Medical Tourism in the Principles of Health Care Ethics (Ed: Richard E. Ashcroft, Angus Dawson, Heather Draper, and John McMillan. 2007 John Wiley & Sons) concluded that government regulation and oversight are the only brakes that can be applied to this global economic engine. But can there be political will when economic imperatives are so dominant?

Doctor

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